How Pomeranian Origined?


by James Bennett


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The Pomeranian, a breed known for its fluffy coat and lively personality, has a fascinating biological and historical background. Originating from the Pomerania region of Central Europe (today part of northern Poland and eastern Germany), the breed has undergone significant evolution over centuries to become the beloved companion we know today.

Ancestral Roots

Pomeranians belong to the Spitz family of dogs, which is characterized by long, thick fur, pointed ears, and muzzles. This family includes other breeds such as the Alaskan Malamute, Siberian Husky, and Samoyed, all known for their resilience in cold climates.

Historically, Pomeranians were much larger dogs, weighing around 30 pounds, and were used for herding sheep and pulling sleds. Their ancestors were hardy working dogs from the Arctic regions, bred for their endurance and ability to withstand cold temperatures.

Evolution of the Breed

The breed’s evolution into its current smaller size is significantly attributed to Queen Victoria of England. During her reign in the late 19th century, she took a particular liking to a smaller-sized Pomeranian and began breeding them to be even smaller. Her influence made the smaller Pomeranians highly fashionable and sought after across Europe and America.

By the late 19th and early 20th centuries, breed enthusiasts and clubs began to standardize the Pomeranian’s size and characteristics, establishing the breed as we recognize it today. The American Kennel Club (AKC) officially recognized the Pomeranian in 1888, further cementing its status as a distinct breed.

Biological Adaptations


The Pomeranian’s thick double coat, consisting of a dense undercoat and a longer outer coat, is a biological adaptation from their Spitz ancestors, designed to protect them from harsh, cold climates. This feature has been retained, even as the breed has become smaller.


The selective breeding for smaller size has made Pomeranians more adaptable to various living situations, including urban environments and smaller homes, contributing to their popularity as companion animals.


While their larger ancestors were bred for work, modern Pomeranians have been bred more for companionship, leading to their energetic, playful, and sometimes feisty temperament. Their alertness and loyalty also make them excellent watchdogs, despite their small size.

Genetic Considerations

As with many purebred dogs, the selective breeding that has refined the Pomeranian’s desirable traits also brings with it certain genetic health considerations, such as potential for dental issues, luxating patella, and tracheal collapse. Responsible breeding practices and genetic testing are crucial to maintaining the health and vitality of the breed.


The Pomeranian’s origin is a testament to the breed’s adaptability and the impact of human influence on canine evolution. From sturdy working dogs of the Arctic to the charming lapdogs favored by royalty, Pomeranians have navigated a remarkable journey. Understanding their biological and historical origins offers insight into their physical characteristics, temperament, and the health considerations that come with their breeding history.

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