Care, Feeding, Grooming, Health, Review, Training, Types

Pomeranian Dog Breed Guide


by James Bennett



Pomeranians, also called “Poms,” are a popular breed of small dog that has won the hearts of dog lovers all over the world. The German region of Pomerania is where these cute little furry friends come from. They have been bred to be smart, loyal, and cute. Even though Pomeranians are small, they have big personalities and are known for being lively and curious. They are also very adaptable and make great pets for people who live in cities and apartments. But having a Pomeranian comes with its own set of challenges and responsibilities. At, our goal is to give Pom owners all the information and tools they need to take the best care of their furry friends.

Understanding Pomeranians

Parts of a Pomeranian
Parts of a Pomeranian


  • Origin: Germany and Poland
  • Breed type: Toy
  • Size: Small (height: 6-7 inches, weight: 3-7 pounds)
  • Lifespan: 12-16 years
  • Coat: Dense, double coat (fluffy)
  • Temperament: Intelligent, outgoing, confident, loving
Pomeranian Size Comparison Chart
Pomeranian Size Comparison Chart

Breed Standards

SizeAll colors, patterns, and variations are allowed.
ProportionSquare breed with a short back; body length to height ratio of 1 to 1.
SubstanceSturdy and medium-boned.
HeadBroad at the back, tapering to the nose; fox-like expression.
EyesDark, bright, medium-sized, almond-shaped; black eye rims (self-colored in chocolate, beaver, and blue).
EarsSmall, mounted high, and carried erect.
SkullClosed, slightly round but not domed; well-pronounced stop.
MuzzleRather short, straight, and free of lippiness; muzzle to skull ratio is ⅓ to ⅔.
NoseBlack pigment (self-colored in chocolate, beaver, and blue).
BiteScissors bite; one tooth out of alignment is acceptable.
NeckSet well into the shoulders with sufficient length for proud head carriage.
ToplineLevel from withers to croup.
BodyCompact, well-ribbed, oval chest; short-coupled, straight, strong back; short loin with slight tuck-up; flat croup.
TailHeavily plumed, set high, and lies flat and straight on the back.
ForequartersWell-laid-back shoulders; equal shoulder blade and upper arm length; close-held elbows; moderately spaced, straight, and parallel legs; moderately muscled shoulders and legs; straight, strong pasterns; round, tight, cat-like feet.
HindquartersBalanced angulation; moderately muscled thighs; strong, moderately bent, and clearly defined stifles; straight, parallel legs; strong, perpendicular hocks; same feet as forequarters.
CoatDouble-coated with a short, dense undercoat and a long, harsh-textured outer coat; ruff around the neck, framing the head and extending over the shoulders and chest.
ColorGood reach in the forequarters and strong drive in hindquarters; smooth, free, balanced, and brisk movement; legs converge slightly towards a center line at faster speeds; topline remains firm and level.
GaitGood reach in forequarters and strong drive in hindquarters; smooth, free, balanced, and brisk movement; legs converge slightly towards a center line at faster speeds; topline remains firm and level.
TemperamentExtroverted, intelligent, and vivacious; suitable as a companion dog and show dog.

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Disqualification: Light blue, blue marbled, or blue flecked eyes.

Pomeranian Characteristics And Traits

  • Physical features: Small size but sturdy build, distinctive fluffy double coat in various colors and patterns.
  • Temperament: Confident, outgoing, intelligent, curious, and protective of their families.
  • Intelligence and trainability: Highly intelligent and trainable but can be stubborn, consistency and positive reinforcement are key to success.
  • Exercise and energy levels: Energetic and require regular exercise and playtime, but their short legs may tire more quickly.
  • Common health issues and life expectancy: Generally healthy with an average lifespan of 12-16 years but can be prone to certain health issues such as luxating patella, hypoglycemia, and dental problems.
  • Socialization: Early socialization is important to ensure good social skills and confidence with strangers and other dogs.
  • Barking: Prone to excessive barking if not trained properly, teaching the “quiet” command and positive reinforcement can help curb barking tendencies.

Pomeranian Double Coat

Pomeranian Double Coat

Pomeranians have a double coat, which means that there are two separate layers of fur on their bodies. The dense layer of fur close to their bodies is their undercoat, while the longer, more visible layer is their topcoat.

The Undercoat: Dense and Insulating

The dense layer of fur close to the Pomeranian’s body is the undercoat, which is also called the bottom coat. This layer is made of soft, thick fur that keeps the body warm. It helps keep the warm air in during the winter and the cool air in during the summer.

In the winter, the Pomeranian’s undercoat gets thicker. This traps warm air next to the skin and keeps the dog’s body temperature steady. This insulation system makes sure that they stay warm and comfortable all winter long.

The Topcoat: Protective and Aesthetic

On the other hand, the topcoat is the outer layer of fur that has longer, rougher hairs. These hairs, called guard hairs, keep the sun, rain, and snow from hurting the Pomeranian’s skin. The topcoat also helps give the breed its famously fluffy look.

Choosing and Bringing Home a Pomeranian

Choosing and Bringing Home a Pomeranian

When it comes to bringing a new Pomeranian puppy into your home, picking the right one can be difficult. Finding a responsible breeder or considering adoption from a shelter is essential, as is assessing the litter and meeting the parents. Finally, choosing a puppy that fits your lifestyle and energy level, as well as whose personality and appearance speak to your heart, will lay the groundwork for a long and happy relationship.

Choosing a reputable breeder: Look for a breeder who prioritizes the health and temperament of their dogs, provides appropriate socialization, and offers ongoing support for new owners. This is important to ensure you get a healthy and well-adjusted puppy.

Meeting the parents and assessing the litter: Observing the parents and litter can give you an idea of the potential size, temperament, and appearance of your puppy. Look for a puppy that is curious, confident, and interacts well with its littermates and humans.

Selecting a puppy based on personality and appearance: Consider both the physical appearance and personality of your puppy. Take your time to find the one that matches your lifestyle and energy level. Remember that temperament is just as important as appearance in building a harmonious partnership with your new furry friend.

Selecting your Pomeranian Puppy

  1. Choose a reputable breeder or consider adoption from a rescue or shelter.
  2. Meet the parents and observe the litter’s health and behavior.
  3. Look for a puppy that has a curious, playful personality and interacts well with humans and other animals.
  4. Consider your lifestyle and energy level to find a compatible puppy.
  5. Evaluate the puppy’s overall health, including their eyes, coat, ears, and vaccination history.
  6. Check the puppy’s lineage to ensure their parents and grandparents are healthy and free of genetic conditions.
  7. Finally, make a decision based on both logic and emotion by choosing the puppy that speaks to your heart and fits well with your lifestyle.

Preparing your home for your new Pomeranian

As you prepare for a new Pomeranian puppy, ensure that your home is secure and well-equipped. This includes gathering the necessary supplies, gradually introducing your puppy to family and other pets, establishing routines and boundaries, scheduling vet visits, puppy-proofing your home, and enrolling your puppy in a puppy class to begin establishing a solid foundation in training and socialization. 

Here is a checklist to assist you in preparing your home for your new Pomeranian to ensure the best possible start for you and your new furry companion:

Puppy-proof your home:

  • Get rid of any small toys, sharp objects, or poisonous substances that your Pomeranian could chew on or swallow.
  • Lock up electrical cords and outlets to keep people from getting shocked.
  • Close off any spaces between furniture or behind appliances where your Pomeranian could get stuck.
  • Consider putting up baby gates to block off certain rooms or stairs.

Create a designated space:

  • Give your Pomeranian a comfortable crate or bed where it can sleep and feel safe.
  • Make sure the area is quiet, has no drafts, and is the right temperature.
  • You can keep your Pomeranian happy and comfortable by giving it blankets, toys, and things to chew on.

Stock up on supplies:

  • Consider buying high-quality puppy food made especially for small breed dogs.
  • Get bowls for food and water. Stainless steel or ceramic is best.
  • Get a leash, a collar, and ID tags so you can walk your dog and keep track of it.
  • Buy things like a brush, comb, nail clippers, and shampoo that is safe for dogs.
  • Get puppy pads, a pooper scooper, and trash bags for cleaning up and potty training.

Set up a potty training area:

  • Set up a place for your Pomeranian to go to the bathroom. This could be a specific spot outside or an area inside with puppy pads.
  • Keeping this area clean and easy to get to will help you stick to a routine.

Plan for socialization and training:

  • Enroll your Pomeranian in a class for socializing puppies or an obedience training program to help him or her become well-behaved and friendly.
  • Find out about techniques for positive reinforcement and make a plan for rewarding good behavior.

Schedule a veterinarian appointment:

  • Set up an appointment for your Pomeranian to see a vet and get their first shots within the first week of bringing them home.
  • Talk to your vet about spaying or neutering your pet and setting up a schedule for future shots and checkups.

Plan for exercise and mental stimulation:

  • Make sure your Pomeranian has a lot of different toys to keep them busy and their minds working.
  • Plan daily walks and playtime to make sure your dog gets enough exercise and time with other people.

Pomeranian Care Essentials


To keep your Pomeranian healthy and happy, you need to provide it with a healthy, high-quality diet. Small-breed dog food is the best choice for smaller dogs like Pomeranians because it is made to meet their specific nutritional needs. It’s important to remember that not all dog food brands are the same. To find the best food for your Pomeranian, you should do research and talk to your vet. Your vet can tell you which food is best for your dog’s age, size, and health. Don’t be afraid to talk to your vet about how to feed your Pomeranian a healthy, well-balanced diet.

Chow Time: How Much and How Often?

When it comes to mealtime, portion control and frequency are key.

  • Puppies (up to 6 months): 3-4 small meals per day
  • Adults (6 months and older): 2 meals per day

Remember, every dog is different, so it’s essential to consult your vet for personalized feeding guidelines tailored to your Pom’s age, weight, and activity level.

Grooming and Coat Care: Keepin’ It Fluffy

Brushing Coat

Pomeranians are famous for their luxurious double coats, which require regular grooming to stay in tip-top shape. Make sure to brush your Pom at least 2-3 times a week to prevent mats, tangles, and excessive shedding.

To select a good brush, read our ‘Best Brushes for Grooming Pomeranians” article.

Bath Time, Nail Trims, and Ear Cleanings

Don’t forget the other grooming essentials! Regular baths, nail trims, and ear cleanings are important for your Pomeranian’s overall hygiene and appearance. Here’s a quick rundown:

Baths: Aim for a bath every 4-6 weeks, or as needed. Use a gentle, dog-friendly shampoo and conditioner to keep your Pom’s coat looking its best.

Nail Trims: Depending on how fast your Pom’s nails grow, they may need trimming every 2-4 weeks. A good rule of thumb: If you can hear your Pom’s nails clicking on the floor, it’s time for a trim.

Ear Cleanings: Check your Pom’s ears weekly for dirt or debris, and clean them with a dog-safe ear cleaner as needed.

Dental Care

Brushing Teeth

Pomeranians need good dental care because their small mouths can make them more likely to have dental problems. Use a soft-bristled toothbrush and dog-safe toothpaste to brush your Pom’s teeth every day. Trust me, the teeth of your Pom will thank you. Check our ‘Pomeranian Teeth‘ article to learn more about their teeth.

Dental Chews and Professional Cleanings

Along with brushing every day, dental chews can help keep your Pom’s teeth healthy. When your vet tells you to, usually once a year, have a professional clean your pet’s teeth. 

Health Checkups and Preventative Care

Regular Vet Visits

As per my experience, I know firsthand how important it is to take your dog to the vet for regular checkups. These visits will help you keep an eye on your Pomeranian’s health and catch any problems early, which can save you a lot of trouble (and money) in the long run.

Vaccinations, Heartworm Prevention, and Flea & Tick Control

The best way to make sure your Pom stays healthy for life is to take care of them before they get sick. What you need to know is this:

Vaccinations: Keep your Pom up-to-date on all recommended vaccinations to protect them from common dog diseases.

Heartworm prevention: Talk to your vet about your options for preventing heartworms, which usually include monthly pills or creams.

Flea and tick control: Fleas and ticks can be a real pain, and they can also be bad for your Pomeranian’s health. Talk with your vet about the best ways to keep fleas and ticks away, like monthly treatments or collars.

Check ‘Common Health Concerns of Pomeranians‘ article for more information.

Training and Socialization

Start early, stay consistent. As a professional dog trainer, I always tell owners of Pomeranians to start training and socialising them as soon as possible. Poms are smart and want to please their owners, so consistent training with positive reinforcement will help them become well-behaved and confident family members. Don’t forget that practise makes perfect.

A well-adjusted Pomeranian needs to be socialised the right way. Introduce your Pom to different people, animals, and places when they are young to help them feel more at ease in different situations. Your Pom can make new friends and learn important social skills at puppy classes and dog parks.

Exercise and Mental Stimulation – Keep Them Busy

Even though Pomeranians are small, they are very active dogs that need to be walked every day to stay happy and healthy. Aim for at least two short walks a day and play fetch or other games with your Pom to keep it active and engaged.

Don’t forget to keep your Pom’s mind active as well. Puzzle toys, training, and scent games are all great ways to keep your mind active and keep you from getting bored. 

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